The lifespan stated for a certain LED product is that period of time after which the light yield has dropped to half of its beginning value. The actual lifespan of LED products depends even more on external influences than other kinds of lamps.
In particular, the ambient temperature during the operation is a limiting factor. The heat produced by an LED source is produced towards the rear. Although LEDs do not radiate any heat themselves they do not tolerate high ambient temperatures like other light sources. Therefore, you should take care that no harmful temperatures (>40°C) are about to occur before installing the product.
In the best circumstances, LEDs can reach a lifespan of up to 50,000 hours of operation.
Luminous flux is measured in Lumen (lm) and describes the entire visible light, emitted by a source (lamp) in all directions.
Light intensity is a measure for the spatial distribution of the luminous flux. It describes how much luminous flux is emitted by a light source in a certain direction (solid angle). The unit of light intensity is Candela (cd).
The illuminance level (lx) describes the luminous flux which is emitted by the light source and shines onto a certain surface. With the level of illuminance, it can be determined whether a surface is adequately illuminated or not. Both horizontally and vertically, it is measured in Lux (lx).
The colour temperature is measured in Kelvin (K) and describes the light colour of a light source. The values of colour temperature can vary between 2500 and 6500 Kelvin. The higher the colour temperature value, the cooler and whiter the human eye perceives it. A lower value is perceived as warm light.
As per DIN 5035, the colour temperature is separated into three groups:
The light colour itself gives us no information about the quality of the lamp’s colour rendering. Despite the same light colour, the different colour rendering properties can lead to fundamentally different perceptions of colour.
In addition to the colour temperature, the Colour Rendering Index (CRI) describes the colour characteristics of an artificial light source. It gives information about how well a light source reflects the natural body colour of an illuminated object.
The size of the value ranges between 20 and 100. A light source with CRI > 80 makes the colours appear natural and true to the original. A lower CRI value means that the colours of the illuminated object are rendered less well (CRI < 80).
According to the European Regulation 1194/2012, all LED lamps, lights and modules used in interior areas must have a Colour Rendering Index greater than 80. For exterior applications, a Colour Rendering Index greater than 65 is required.
"IP" signifies the "Ingress Protection" and alongside the protection of humans while using the product it also indicates the appropriateness of fittings for various environmental conditions.
The IP protection class is stated by means of two numerals. The first digit provides information about the degree of protection against ingress of foreign objects, whereas the second digit indicates the degree of protection against the ingress of water. Below you will find a list stating the individual IP protection classes:
Installing lights in bathrooms requires certain measures laid down in DIN VDE 0100, part 701 "Requirements for special installations or location areas with bath tub or shower". This standard distinguishes four different room zones and three safety areas. As each country follows different interpretations concerning this issue, kindly check the valid standards prescribed for installation sites in this country:
The most frequent cause for the accumulation of water is air humidity condensation. Condensation is a natural phenomenon. This can take place inside a fitting if it is switched off after a longer period of use. Inside the light´s housing, warm and moist air cools down and creates condensed water. This water can harm electric components and lead to the shutdown of the residual current circuit breaker (RCCB). It is therefore recommended to remove accumulated condensation with a dry towel every now and then. Just make sure the fitting is switched voltage free.
Other causes for humidity inside a fitting are improperly closed cable entries or bad connection of outdoor applications. By means of capillary attraction, a considerable amount of humidity can enter the light’s housing.It is therefore absolutely necessary to pay attention to the annexed operating instructions during an installation to ensure proper connection. An improper procedure, for example, is filling junction boxes with silicone sealant.
Soiled or damaged seals can also lead to humidity inside a particular light. These seals are subject to maintenance and should be reviewed and cleaned at least every time the light sources are replaced. Screw joints that are pressing the seal on via a coverplate have to be tightened crosswise in order to achieve an evenly distributed pressure.
Dimmer modules for dimming of illumination can be divided into two groups. As a rule, trailing-edge phase dimmers are used for the regulation of capacitive loads and leading-edge phase dimmers to regulate inductive loads.
Pure 220-240V applications with conventional halogen lamps (capacitive load) are subject to regulation by trailing-edge phase dimmers. A trailing-edge phase dimmer is also required for low-voltage applications with electronic transformers.
Lighting applications with conventional transformers (inductive load) require a leading-edge phase dimmer. The intense dimming of conventional transformers may cause noise development (for more about this issue please see: Why do transformers sometimes hum?)
To ensure a smooth dimming function, you should check the compatibility of your specific installation with SLV lights, particularly while using third-party dimmer modules from other manufacturers.
The energy label provides information about the efficiency of energy sources, including lamps and lights. Thus it can be used as a guide in the purchasing decision.
To simplify the evaluation of the lamps in terms of their energy efficiency and to enable a direct comparison, there is a uniform rating scale for classification into energy classes from A++ to E. A++ means that the lamp is very efficient as it has a low power consumption and high light output. Items with energy efficiency class E have a very high power consumption.
Energy efficiency classes are found on the energy consumption label and/or on the product packaging.
At a glance, the energy label for lights provides information about the efficiency of lamps compatible with your light. The classification of energy efficiency classes is made according to the scale described in the section above.
As a basic principle, stainless steel is resistant to corrosion. Its outermost layer (passive layer) protects and is self-renewing. However, amongst other things, this layer can be damaged by metal particles (e.g. by tools).
Therefore, stainless steel needs further maintenance and care to keep a lasting attractive surface appearance. More information about the cleaning of stainless steel can be found under "Advice for cleaning and maintaining high-grade steel".
Stainless steel 304 - Good corrosion resistance when there are no high concentrations of chlorine and salt. Not suitable for operational areas with a salty atmosphere. Not salt water resistant.
Stainless steel 316 - Good corrosion resistance in areas with moderate concentrations of chlorine and salt. Not salt water resistant.
Nearly all lights from SLV are suitable for direct fixing on and in normally flammable surfaces. Lights only suitable for mounting on non-flammable surfaces, or with other limitations, are specially markedwith the following symbols in our catalogues and the respective type label on the light itself:
A wall light can also be mounted to the ceiling if the particular type is approved for this specific site of installation. In our catalogues and manual instructions this is indicated by the following symbol:
Lights without this symbol must not be mounted directly to the ceiling due to temperature characteristic behaviour or mechanical stress.
The protection classes classify electrical devices or equipment (e.g. lights) with regard to protection against electric shock.
While installing protection class I (one) lights, the protective conductor must always be connected to ensure safe operation. With protection class II (two) lights, the protective conductor is not connected.
If there is no circuit on site that includes a protective conductor, only a double insulated light of protection class II is allowed be installed and connected. If a protective conductor is available, there is no further restriction on using protection class I or protection class II lights.
SLV Elektronik GmbH is member of the RELUX group. On the internet you can find all photometric data for SLV products via www.relux.biz. For further information or assistance please refer to your SLV consultant or the general customer service team.
Stainless high-grade steel is corrosion-proof throughout. The outer layer (passive layer) protects the high-grade steel and rebuilds itself when the surface gets damaged. To achieve and to keep a durable and attractive appearance, certain cleaning measures must be taken. Different types of high-grade steel have varying properties.
The basic cleaning should take place before the product is handed over to the customer.
To reduce the risk of high-grade steel surfaces getting soiled or stained on construction sites, these surfaces should be protected by coverings or by other adequate means. Lime and mortar splashes are removed using diluted phosphoric acid. After application the surface should be cleaned with clear water. Demineralised water inhibits lime deposits! Iron particles must be removed at once, e.g. with a sponge. Rusty particles may penetrate the passive layer and lead to selective corrosion.
For outdoor applications the cleaning effect of rain is usually sufficient. In areas near coasts or areas under industrial influence with higher concentrations of chlorines and sulphur dioxides, maintenance cleaning is important to avoid deposits. Indoors it is usually fingerprints that cause annoying stains.
Usually it is sufficient to remove light dirt and soiling using a damp towel. Dish washing liquid or glass cleaner may also be used. Apply with a towel or a chamois. Persistent dirt may be removed using a cleansing fluid without scouring additives. Use a regular household sponge without any iron components. Do not use scouring powder or steel wool! Oily and greasy soiling may be removed with cleaners containing alcohol. Basically suitable are isopropyl alcohol, spirit or acetone. The cleaning must be repeated until all loose dirt and streaks are removed completely. A sponge and a soft nylon brush may be used for application. Do not use metal brushes!
In areas with a higher than usual corrosive pollution (coastal areas, industrial areas) or with pollution caused by de-icing salt, exhaust gases, or air pollution the cleaning intervals may be shorter (approx. 3-4 times a year) than in areas where such pollutants are reduced or absent (approx. 1-2 times a year). Basically cleaning should take place before large amounts of dirt or stains become evident. Another indication may be the intervals at which glass surfaces are cleaned.